miniature aircraft for level flight at normal cruise.
between the natural horizon and the horizon bar by placing the nose of
the aircraft first above the horizon, then below it.
Discuss the limits
the attitude indicator must be caged and uncaged in level flight (if a
caging device is available). Stress the importance of fully uncaging
attitude is indicated within approximately 30° in climbs and dives.
In excess of 30°, the horizon bar is no longer visible or may lag.
The extreme limits vary with instrument design.
rapidly from low to high - show loss of altitude while maintaining a
attitude on the attitude indicator.
rapidly from high to low - show gain of altitude while maintaining a
attitude on the attitude indicator.
during power changes - show that the bar moves down on acceleration and
moves up on deceleration.
movement of the miniature aircraft and the nose of the aircraft. The
gives a direct indication of pitch.
aircraft with the wings exactly centered on the horizon bar.
attitude to 1/2 bar climb - student compares the movement of the
nose to the actual horizon.
attitude to 1/2 bar descent - student compares to actual horizon.
control pressures and that 1/2 bar is recommended for small
level flight, keeping wings centered on horizon bar.
pitch changes not to exceed 1/2 bar width.
in moderate climbs and descents and have student return to level
of smoothness and of not overcontrolling.
- Point out that the instrument reads zero when a constant altitude is
maintained. The vertical-speed indicator is used both as a trend and a
and level flight at a constant power setting. Point out that pitch
must also remain constant.
of the aircraft until the altimeter indicates a climb - show the
between increased pitch attitude and gain of altitude.
of the aircraft until the altimeter indicates a descent show the
between decreased pitch and loss of altitude.
attitude by the altimeter.
aircraft well above the horizon bar. Point out the rapid change of the
altimeter and the large change of pitch attitude shown on the attitude
in pitch attitude - show slow change in altitude. Visualize the
change in pitch attitude by interpolating the rate of altimeter
c. Lag in
(1) Make an
pitch change and point out the momentary lag in the altimeter.
smooth pitch changes and point out that the altimeter, for practical
has no lag.
for correcting altimeter movement.
attitude to stop altimeter.
attitude to return smoothly to desired altitude.
of attention) between altimeter and attitude indicator.
is simple. Maintain level flight on the attitude indicator with
reference to the altimeter to determine that the altitude is being
If an error is noted, correct it by making an appropriate correction on
the attitude indicator. Guard against over controlling.
flight, the altimeter is primary for pitch and all changes in pitch are
made so as to maintain a constant altitude.
a constant altitude.
level flight by use of the attitude indicator and altimeter.
(3) Lose or
50 feet by changing pitch attitude not more than 1/2 bar (emphasize
original altitude, using the above technique.
exercise until the student has acquired the proper cross-check and
the vertical-speed indicator as a trend instrument. Observe the
indicator and altimeter as small pitch changes are made. Note that the
vertical-speed indicator shows a trend up or down before the altimeter
shows a climb or descent.
b. Use of
indicator as a rate instrument in climbs and descents.
small attitude change and allow the vertical-speed indicator to "settle
down" on a rate. The attitude change will give a particular vertical
which will vary with different aircraft.
student not to "chase the needle," but to make small pitch changes,
wait for the needle to settle down. As a demonstration, put the
into a climb or descent. With the needle of the vertical-speed
in motion, apply control pressures in the opposite direction to stop
trend. Have the student note that when the altimeter stops, the
is passing through level flight attitude, and that simultaneously, the
needle of the vertical-speed indicator is stopping and reversing its
c. Use of
indicator to correct for deviations in altitude.
1/2 bar. With a pitch attitude change of this magnitude, the
indicator indicates a climb of about 200 feet per minute in low speed
(Explain that the relation between the attitude-indicator and the
indicator depends on airspeed.)
corrections of 100 feet or less, use no more than a 200 feet per minute
rate of climb or descent. A vertical speed in excess of this indicates
corrections of more than 100 feet, make a correspondingly larger
1/2 bar. Show that the vertical-speed indicator indicates a rate of
of about 200 feet per minute.
flight. Cross-check the attitude indicator, altimeter, and
indicator to detect any change in pitch attitude. Any deviation from
by the vertical speed indicator shows a need for a pitch change.
below the desired altitude, then enter a climb of 200 feet per minute
return to the desired altitude.
(3) Climb 50
above the desired altitude, then enter a descent of 200 feet per minute
and return to the desired altitude.
with the vertical-speed indicator only.
with the attitude indicator and the vertical-speed indicator.
with the attitude indicator, vertical-speed indicator, and the
(4) Have the
climb 100 feet at a rate of 200 feet per minute.
resume level flight, then descend at 200 feet per minute to the desired
altimeter, attitude indicator, and vertical-speed indicator to maintain
corrective pressures when correcting altitude.
(correct small errors).
airspeed indicator to determine attitude.
power in level flight, point out that when altitude is constant,
in pitch and point out slow changes in airspeed.
changes in pitch and point out fast changes in airspeed.
airspeed in level flight, have student climb or dive aircraft. Point
apparent lag. Explain that lag is caused by the time required for the
to accelerate or decelerate after pitch has been changed.
there is no appreciable lag incorporated in the design of the
attitude indicator, vertical-speed indicator, and airspeed indicator.
each instrument is added to the cross-check, the speed of the
must be increased to afford adequate coverage of all instruments.
Encourage the use of peripheral vision.)
With a constant power setting, hold constant airspeed in level flight
of elevator trim in pitch control.
NOTE - The
should aid the student in rudder and bank control throughout this
in level flight, out of trim.
required to maintain desired pitch attitude.
to relieve pressure - show that aircraft flies "hands off."
(4) In level
change airspeed. Point out the necessity of first holding pressure and
relieving pressure with elevator trim.
Use of elevator trim in level flight.
(1) With all