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IFR Lesson Guides - Bank Control

IFR Lesson Guides:  Intro | Basic Attitude Instruction | Cockpit Check | Pitch Control | Bank Control | Power Control | Constant Airspeed | Turns | ITO | Constant Rate | Compass | Steep Turns | Unusual Attitudes | Precision Flight | Bravo Pattern | Descent Profile
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Three phases of an instrument rating

1. Attitude Indicator 

a. Point out the similarity of the horizon bar to the natural horizon while banking. The instrument gives a direct indication of bank. 
(1) Roll from one bank to another and point out the similarity of the apparent movement of the miniature aircraft and the real aircraft. To aid the student's understanding, tell him to imagine himself in the miniature aircraft. 
(2) Point out the banking scale at the top of the instrument. Rolling from one bank to another, show how the pointer indicates the degree of bank. 
(3) If the aircraft is flying right-side-up, the bank indices will be next to the reference marks on the case of the instrument. 
(4) If the aircraft is inverted, the bank indices will be at the bottom of the case (non-tumbling instrument). 

b. Demonstrate the banking limits of the instrument. 

c. Precession of the horizon bar. Make a steep turn of 180°. After returning to level flight at the completion of the turn, point out that pitch and bank errors may be as much as 5°. 

d. Caging and uncaging (if a caging device is available). 
(1) Cage and uncage in a banked attitude - show error. 
(2) Emphasize the importance of uncaging the instrument in level flight. 
(3) Stress the importance of fully uncaging the instrument after caging it, otherwise its limits may be greatly reduced. 

e. Cross-check. Point out that while cross-checking the attitude indicator, both pitch and bank should be checked at the same time. 

f. Student practice. 
(1) Bank control with the attitude indicator alone. 
(2) Occasionally place the aircraft in a bank and have the student level the wings. 
(3) Pitch and bank control using all the pitch instruments and the attitude indicator for bank control.

2. Heading Indicator 

a. Banks and turns. 
(1) In coordinated flight, turning means banking. The heading indicator gives an indirect indication of bank. 
(2) Roll into a shallow bank. The heading indicator moves slowly in the direction of the bank. 
(3) Increase the bank and point out the corresponding increase in the rate of turn on the heading indicator. 
b. Limits of the heading indicator. 
(1) The limits of the heading indicator vary with instrument design. Until recently, these limits have generally been 55 degrees of pitch and bank. If the limits of the instrument are exceeded, it gives an unreliable indication. 
(2) Due to precession caused by internal friction, the instrument should be checked at least every 15 minutes during flight and reset to the correct heading. An error of 3 degrees in 15 minutes is acceptable for normal operation. 
c. Correcting headings.
(1) When correcting a heading, do not exceed in bank the number of degrees to be turned. For example, if the heading error is 10°, do not exceed a 10° bank when correcting. 
(2) The bank should never exceed that required to produce a standard rate turn or a maximum of 30°. 
d. Cross-check. Include the heading indicator in the cross-check to maintain straight-and-level flight. When available, the heading indicator is always primary for bank in straight flight. 
e. Student practice. 
(1) Maintaining straight flight with the heading indicator alone. 
(2) Maintaining straight flight by use of the heading indicator and the attitude indicator. 
(3) Maintaining straight and level flight by the use of all pitch instruments together with the heading indicator and attitude indicator of the bank group.
3. Turn Coordinator (miniature aircraft) 
a. When the miniature aircraft is level (proper trim), it indicates that the airplane is flying straight with the wings level. Demonstrate that the roll rate of the miniature aircraft is proportional to the airplane's rate of roll. Also, point out that the miniature aircraft indicates the airplane's rate of turn when the roll rate is reduced to zero. 
b. Roll from one turn to another. The miniature aircraft shows the roll rate of the airplane. 
c. Point out that when the airplane is banked in coordinated flight, it is also turning. This turn is indicated by the miniature aircraft. 
d. In straight-and-level unaccelerated flight, when the heading indicator is not available, the magnetic compass is primary for bank, closely supported by the miniature aircraft of the turn coordinator. 
e. Referring to the attitude indicator, place the airplane in a very shallow bank (approximately 2°) and point out the position of the miniature aircraft of the turn coordinator. Point out the corresponding movement of the heading indicator. 
f. Emphasize keeping the miniature aircraft level to maintain straight flight. 
4. Rudder and Aileron Trim 
a. Emphasize maintaining attitude and trimming off pressures. 

b. Demonstrate how the need for trim can be determined by a proper interpretation of instrument indications. 

c. Make power changes and have the student maintain straight-and-level flight, keeping the aircraft properly trimmed. 

d. The cross-check for need of trim should be continued throughout flight. 

e. Trim technique - partial panel and full panel. 
(1) Partial panel - relax control pressures in straight-and-level flight. If the miniature aircraft of the turn coordinator indicates a turn, but the ball is centered, aileron trim is needed. If the miniature aircraft and ball move simultaneously, rudder trim is needed. 
(2) Full panel - relax control pressures in straight-and-level flight. If the heading indicator shows a turn before a bank is shown on the attitude indicator, rudder trim is needed. If a bank is shown on the attitude indicator before a turn is shown on the heading indicator, aileron trim is needed. Refer to the miniature aircraft and ball of the turn coordinator to confirm this interpretation.

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