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IFR Lesson Guides - Turns

IFR Lesson Guides:  Intro | Basic Attitude Instruction | Cockpit Check | Pitch Control | Bank Control | Power Control | Constant Airspeed | Turns | ITO | Constant Rate | Compass | Steep Turns | Unusual Attitudes | Precision Flight | Bravo Pattern | Descent Profile
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Three phases of an instrument rating 1. Standard Rate Turns at Cruising Airspeed 

a. Turn entry and recovery. 
(1) In level flight, enter a turn. As the turn is established on the attitude indicator, it becomes primary for bank. When the approximate desired bank is reached, the miniature aircraft of the turn coordinator becomes primary for bank and the attitude indicator becomes supporting for bank. The altimeter is primary for pitch and the airspeed indicator is primary for power. 
(2) Loss of vertical lift. Pitch attitude must be changed to hold a constant altitude. Apply corrections only when the instruments show need for correction. 
(3) When the desired bank is reached, it may be necessary to hold slight aileron and rudder pressure opposite the direction of turn to maintain the desired bank. Emphasize maintaining a constant bank angle. 
(4) Power is adjusted as necessary to maintain a constant airspeed. 
(5) Recovery to straight-and-level flight. The roll-out is accomplished by reference to the attitude indicator. When the normal lead for roll-out is reached, the heading indicator (if available) becomes primary for bank. Adjust the pitch attitude and power as necessary to maintain the desired altitude and airspeed. 

b. Turn entry with rudder alone.  How to make unsafe, uncoordinated turns.
(1) Enter a turn using only rudder. Show the resulting skid, displacement of the ball, and the effect on airspeed. 
(2) Show that the aircraft is turning faster than the bank indicates. 

c. Turn entry with aileron alone. 
(1) Enter a turn using only aileron. Show yaw caused by aileron drag and that coordinated use of rudder and aileron eliminates its effect. 
(2) When correcting for a slip or skid, the angle of bank will have to be changed to maintain a constant rate turn.

d. Angle of bank for standard rate turn - A rule-of-thumb to find the amount of bank needed for a standard rate turn is to divide the airspeed by 10 and add one-half the answer.

TAS Approx. Angle
80 12° 
90 14° 
100 15° 
110 17° 
120 18° 
130 20° 
140 21° 
150 22° 

(1) Make turns at low cruise airspeed, using correct bank for standard rate. 
(2) Make turns at normal cruise airspeed, using correct bank for standard rate. 
(3) Make turns at high cruise speed, using correct bank for standard rate. 

e. Student practice turns. 
(1) First without the hood, then with the hood. 
(2) Full and partial panel.

2. Climbing and Descending Turns 
a. Entry. 
(1) The entry may be made in three ways: enter the climb/descent then the turn; enter the turn then the climb/descent; enter the climb/descent and turn simultaneously. 
(2) Point out that these maneuvers require simultaneous use of bank and pitch techniques previously learned individually for level turns and straight climbs and descents. 
(3) When climbing or descending airspeed is reached, the airspeed indicator becomes primary for pitch. 
(4) The manifold pressure gauge is primary for power, and as the approximate desired bank is reached, the miniature aircraft of the turn coordinator becomes primary for bank. 
(5) Emphasize trim. 

b. Level-off 
(1) Combine techniques previously described for climb and descent level-offs and turn recovery. 
(2) The student may stop the turn, then level-off, or level-off then stop the turn, or level-off and stop the turn simultaneously. 

c. Student practice. Make climbing and descending turns, leveling-off at various airspeeds: 
(1) With all available instruments. 
(2) Without the attitude indicator. 

3. Turns to Predetermined Headings 

a. Enter a coordinated standard rate turn. Show the student that the aircraft will turn as long as the wings are banked and point out that the rollout must be started before reaching the desired heading. 

b. As a guide for rollout on a desired heading, use a lead of 1° for each 2° of bank being held. Never exceed in bank the number of degrees to be turned, and in no case exceed a standard rate of turn. 

c. With the attitude indicator covered, have the student change heading 30° using a standard rate turn. 

d. With all instruments available, show the proper bank to use when changing heading less than 15°. 

e. Student practice. Make turns to various headings: 
(1) With all available instruments. 
(2) Without the attitude indicator.

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