Learn to Fly
7 day IFR Rating
1. Turning Errors
a. The magnetic compass gives erroneous turn
the aircraft is flying near headings of north or south.
2. Northerly Turning Error
b. The magnitude of error varies with angle of bank and proximity to
north or south headings. The error becomes progressively smaller as
or west headings are approached. The error also depends on the latitude
at which the aircraft is flying.
c. All methods of compensating for turn error in medium latitudes are
based on using a definite and constant bank between 15° and
a. Fly a north heading long enough for the compass to
down (wings must be level).
3. Southerly Turning Error
b. Enter a turn toward the west. The compass immediately indicates
a turn in the opposite direction, i.e., toward the east. (Return to the
c. Enter a turn toward the east. The compass indicates a turn toward
the west. (Return to the north heading.)
d. Enter a very shallow banked turn toward the west. The compass
momentarily that a straight course is being maintained. Point out that
the wings must be level to avoid turn errors. Repeat the demonstration
in a shallow turn toward the east.
e. Enter a steep turn. The compass lags excessively and may swing
around in the opposite direction from the turn.
a. Fly a south heading and let the compass settle
must be level).
4. Acceleration and Deceleration
b. Enter a turn toward the west. The compass indicates a much faster
turn in the same direction. (Return to the south heading.)
c. Enter a turn toward the east. The compass indicates a much faster
turn in the same direction.
d. The wings must be level to avoid compass turn errors.
a. Fly a heading of east.
5. Turns to Magnetic Compass
b. Increase airspeed in level flight to show acceleration error -
indicates a turn toward north.
c. Reduce airspeed in level flight to show deceleration error - compass
indicates a turn toward the south.
d. Lower the nose at a constant power setting - show acceleration
e. Raise the nose at a constant power setting - show deceleration
f. Fly a heading of west and repeat the above demonstration.
g. Explain that the magnitude of the error depends on the rate of
or deceleration. To read the compass accurately on easterly and
headings, the airspeed must be constant.
h. Acceleration and deceleration errors are not present in constant
airspeed climbs and descents.
i. Show that acceleration and deceleration errors are not present on
north and south headings.
j. Show that turn errors are not present on east and west
a. Turn to a heading of north, using 15° to
bank. Lead the heading an amount equal to the latitude plus half the
6. Student Practice
b. Turn to heading of south, using 15° to 18° of bank.
the heading an amount equal to the latitude minus half the angle of
c. From south, then from north, turn to a heading of east. Lead the
heading approximately 5° when turning from a heading of south to
and approximately 10° when turning from a heading of north to
d. Turn to a heading of west, using the procedure given above.
e. Show that lead or lag must be interpolated when turning to
Make turns to magnetic compass headings:
a. Without the heading indicator.
b. Without the heading indicator and attitude indicator.
1. Calibration of the
Miniature Aircraft of the Turn Coordinator
a. With all instruments available, establish a
turn as indicated by the miniature aircraft of the turn
2. Timed Turns with All
b. As the clock second hand passes a cardinal point (12, 3, 6, or 9),
check the heading indicator.
c. Check for a turn of 30° each 10 seconds (no lag, since timing
is started after turn is established).
d. Make necessary changes in indicated rate (miniature aircraft
to produce a standard rate turn.
e. Calibrate miniature aircraft of turn coordinator both right and
f. Note exact deflection of miniature aircraft and use during all timed
a. Enter a standard rate turn when the clock second
a cardinal point (12, 3, 6, or 9).
3. Timed Turns without the
Heading Indicator and Attitude Indicator
b. The first 30 seconds is used to establish the turn properly.
c. Check the heading indicator to see whether the rate of turn is
It should indicate a turn of 90° minus the number of degrees lag
the angle of bank used (lag will be approximately one-half the degree
d. Demonstrate how the angle of bank is increased or decreased to
for any error.
e. After the first 30 seconds, the heading indicator should be checked
against the clock every 15 seconds.
f. Time is started when pressure is applied to roll into a turn and
is stopped when pressure is applied to roll out.
g. With all instruments available, roll out on the desired heading
regardless of time.
a. Enter a standard rate turn, using the miniature
of the turn coordinator as the primary bank instrument while in the
4. Student Practice.
b. Turn for 30 seconds, using a constant miniature aircraft
c. At the end of 30 seconds, roll out of the turn at the same rate
you made the roll-in.
d. With the wings level and the miniature aircraft of the turn
indicating zero rate of turn, the magnetic compass should indicate that
a turn of 90° has been made.
e. For small changes in heading, use a half-standard-rate turn as
by the miniature aircraft of the turn coordinator.
timed turns at different airspeeds:
a. With all available instruments.
b. Without the heading indicator.
c. Without the heading indicator and attitude indicator.